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Primary Source -- The Bayeux Tapestry

The Bayeux Tapestry (1077 AD) depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England as well as the events of the invasion itself.

Writing Advice and Hints

Annotated Bibliography

Research Basics Advice

Pictures of circular arrows

Research is a process It can take more time and effort than simply plugging a few keywords into Google and taking the top three hits.

  • Work broad to narrow.  Gain an overview of your topic before you delve deep.
  • Always "be researching"  -- Look carefully at what your sources are telling you; use them to guide your research.
  • Bibliographic Mining --  Examine the bibliography of secondary sources to find primary and other sources to help you.
  • The Librarians are here to help you. 

Pre-Research Resources

Before you begin library research, the following library resources are recommended:

1) Watch this three minute video introduction to the UHMC Library Website:


2. Take the library's self-guided Searching as Exploration: Getting Started with Research tutorial (takes 30-45 minutes):


Evaluating Your Sources

Are your sources crappy or not? Evaluate your sources using this CRAAP test.

-- When was the information created?
-- Does your topic require updated information? 
-- Does the information relate to your paper/project?
-- Is it written at an appropriate level? (not too advanced or elementary)
-- Is the author qualified to write on this subject?
-- Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source?
-- Where does the information come from?
-- Is the information supported by legitimate sources?
-- Why was the site created (advertising, share knowledge, entertainment)?
-- Do the authors make their intentions clear?

Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian

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 There are 2 styles to choose from when using Chicago -- ask your professor which style they would like you to use. The main differences between the styles are where the references are placed, where the dates are placed, and how the titles are capitalized.

1. Notes/Bibliography - Humanities: numbered footnotes or endnotes at the bottom of each page, with Bibliography or Works Cited list at the end of the paper, listing alphabetically the sources in your notes. Your professor may not require that you include a separate Works Cited list if all of the information is included in your footnotes -- but you may be asked to provide a bibliography of all sources consulted.

2. Reference List/Parenthetical (in-text citations) - Author/Date: in your text, brief references are listed consisting of the author's last name, publication year, and page(s) referred to, with an alphabetized Reference List at the end of your paper.  The reference list at the end of your paper provides complete entries for works cited in parenthetical references.