Citing Sources: APA
Books and General Resources
In APA citation style, print and electronic sources are treated the same.
Articles from a periodical are often the most common source to be cited in an APA paper. If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article. If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical.
Formatting for an article (spacing has not yet been formatted):
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
DOIs and URLs
What do I add to the end of my citation?
- If there is a DOI number (check the article or database record for the DOI), add it to the end of the citation as a hyperlink (this is new to the 7th Edition of APA). Do not put a period after the URL.
- If there is no DOI, add the homepage URL instead.
- Learn more about working with DOIs and URLs from from apa.org. This is a good source for learning about what to do when your source does not have a DOI.
Citing References In-Text
- For a complete overview and comprehensive help with of in-text citation, visit the apa.org in-text citation webpages.
- APA Style uses the author-date citation system. This system allows readers to find the sources cited in text in the reference list, where each source is listed alphabetically.
- To insert a citation in text, include the author’s surname and year of publication.
- For a direct quotation, include the page number or specific location, or the phrase or sentences in the original work.
- Here are some examples of using the author-date in-text citation when paraphrasing (look here for direct quote examples):
Helpful chart on citing authors from APA Publication Manual:
- When you need to cite two or more works together, arrange the in-text citations alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list:
To learn more, Purdue Owl Writing Lab has a good tutorial on APA in-text citation basics.