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Mauna Kea: Start Here


This research guide is to provide Kānaka, or Hawaiian, perspectives on Mauna Kea – the tallest mountain on earth when measured from the base on the ocean floor to her summit. This guide is not meant to be comprehensive but will be periodically updated as we come across more sources. 

A Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) has been proposed for the summit of Mauna Kea and is supposed to begin construction in 2019. Led by kūpuna (elders), the Kiaʻi, or Protectors, opposed to any desecration of the mauna (mountain) have been holding space at Puʻuhonua o Puʻuhuluhulu (a place of refuge) and blocking the access road to the summit since July 2019. The current movement to Kū Kiaʻi Mauna is not a new or isolated event but rather part of a growing movement. In fact, there has been resistance to development on Mauna Kea since the construction of the first telescope in the 1960s. The Kiaʻi on the mauna and across the world continue to hold steadfast and are calling for an immediate halt to the construction of the TMT.

Searching for Maunakea

Maunakea or Mauna Kea?  
Spelling affects the search results you get in Primo OneSearch for digital and physical library resources and may also affect your search results in other databases as well.

Be sure to try different spellings while you research:

  • Mauna Kea
  • Maunakea
  • Mauna a Wākea 

Social Media

Social media handles to follow if you want to keep up with the kiaʻi and happenings on the mauna:

Puʻuhonua o Puʻuhuluhulu 




​ Puʻuhonua Puʻuhuluhulu

Kākoʻo Haleakalā




Protect Maunakea








KAHEA -The Hawaiian Environmental Alliance: KAHEA is a community based organization that advocates for the proper stewardship of Hawaiʻiʻs natural and cultural resources and focuses on issues such as ocean and mountain protections which include species and habitats, functioning food systems along with cultural and land rights.

Puʻuhuluhulu: Puʻuhonua o Puʻuhulu is the official website established by the kiaʻi of Maunakea and the Royal Order of Kamehameha 

Kanaeokana - The Kula Hawaiʻi Network: Kanaeokana is an organization dedicated to the strengthening a Native Hawaiian education system including curriculum, instruction, assessment, and educational strategies with an emphasis on ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi, collaboration and diversity. Contains additional videos and information regarding Maunakea.

Maunakea Stewardship (UH website) - Includes info about the University of Hawaiʻi's stewardship and management of Maunakea

Office of Maunakea Management (OMKM) - OMKM is responsible for day-to-day management of the Maunakea Science Reserve as prescribed in the Master Plan

Maunakea Observatories - This page includes links to the 12 separate nonprofit observatories that operate the telescopes on Maunakea

Citing Your Sources

MLA Quick Tips

MLA only requires the "www." address, so you can remove all  of the "https://" when citing URLs (i.e. instead of If you find a shortened permalink (the link that pops up when you click the share button on many websites) you can use shortened link instead for online newspapers and magazines. 


Citing Podcasts - MLA Format 

“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,


Citing interviews you've done on your own - MLA Format Personal Interviews  

Smith, Jane. Personal interview. 19 May 2019.


Please remember to follow the appropriate formatting style of MLA  - margins, page numbering, labels, indentations. You can read more about the general guidelines here and further formatting information here. You can also view an example paper in MLA format which includes a Works Cited example page here.  

APA Citation Quick Tips

APA format for newspaper websites prefers that the home page link for the publication is used instead of the direct full URL link. For e-books, only use the URL if the book is difficult to locate in print or it only exists online. You can find further information on citing electronic resources and print resources here


Citing Podcasts - APA Format
APA Format - Audio Podcast 

Bell, T., & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from


APA Format - Video Podcast

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from


APA Format - YouTube Video or Video Blog

For video, the "author" refers to the user who uploaded the video file. The author should be spelled as it is written online - exactly as it appears. If the screen name is the same as the author and/or the video does not have an author, leave that information out and use the screen name only, without the brackets. 

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from

Selected Articles

Journal Articles

  1. Noelani Goodyear-Ka‘ōpua. (2017). Protectors of the Future, Not Protestors of the Past: Indigenous Pacific Activism and Mauna a WākeaSouth Atlantic Quarterly, 116 (1), 184–194.
  2. Joseph E. Ciotti (2011). Historical Views on Mauna Kea: From the Vantage Points on Hawaiian Culture and Astronomical Research. Hawaiian Journal of History, 45, 147-166
  3. Norbert Schorghofer, Elianna Kantar, & Puakea Nogelmeier (2014). Snow on the Summits of Hawai'i Island: Historical Sources from 1778 to 1870Hawaiian Journal of History, 48, 89-113.

Newspaper Articles

  1. A full archive of Civil Beat articles on Mauna Kea is available here.
  2. Close to home, Mauna Kea affects faculty and students, by Serena Palmer (in Montana Kaimin of the University of Montana in Missoula, Oct. 23, 2019)  
  3. I Teach Writing to Native Hawaiian Students at UHMC. Here’s What They Have to Say About TMT, by Lantana Hoke (in Maui Time, Aug. 15, 2019)
  4. Why Some Native Hawaiians Are Protesting Construction Of The Thirty Meter Telescope, by Alex Knapp (in Forbes, July 18, 2019)


Blogs and Other Articles

  1. 10 Questions about Mauna Kea whose answers might surprise you, by Kanaeokana

  2. Thirty ways to stand for Mauna Kea when you cannot physically stand on Mauna Kea (one way for every meter of the TMT), by Emalani Case (July 13, 2019)

  3. Thirty MORE ways to stand for Mauna Kea when you cannot physically stand on Mauna Kea. (One MORE way for every meter of the TMT.), by Emalani Case (Sept. 9, 2019)

  4. Where do we go from here?, by Mia de los Reyes (Oct. 1, 2019)

  5. Impacts of Astronomy on Indigenous Customary and Traditional Practices As Evident at Mauna Kea (Version 1), by Tracy Kuulei Higashi Kanahele and Davianna Pomaikai McGregor (2020)


Here's a selection of YouTube videos highlighting the importance of Maunakea and the actions of kiaʻi (protectors) on the mauna.

Sacredness of Mauna Kea - Pualani Kanakaole Kanahele - Here we have a scholar, educator, and renowned Hawaiian practitioner, Pualani Kanahele, breaking down the meaning of sacred and how Mauna Kea came to be as such to the native Hawaiian people. She also explains the different deities or elements that are connected to the sacredness of Mauna Kea.

A tour of Pu‘uhonua o Pu‘uhuluhulu Maunakea - Provides a behind the scenes look at the Puʻuhonua, a highly functioning community full of aloha.

Hawai‘i Pono‘ī: This is how we rise - Protecting Mauna Kea, Day 7: Jamaica Heolimeleikalani Osorio performs slam poetry from the top of Pu‘u Huluhulu

2019 July 17 Kūpuna (elders) are arrested on Maunakea - The day of the arrests - 33 kūpuna and 1 caregiver arrested as they block access to the road to Maunakea.

Lanakila Mangauil talks Culture (TMT & Maunakea: Common Ground - part 1) - Lanakila shares about the cultural significance of Maunakea and his experiences/relationship with the mauna. Approx. 43 minutes and well worth the watch!

Puke & DVDs


The Conversation on Hawaiʻi Public Radio - August 20, 2019

Episode: "Native Voices on Mauna Kea", feat Jon Osorio, John De Fries, and Kealoha Fox [run time: ~52 minutes]

It's Lit with PhDJ (on Mixcloud)
This podcast has a Lit for the Mauna Series:

Lit for the Mauna 1 - Episode 101 (July 26, 2019): featuring Emalani Case, Joy Lehuanani Enomoto, and Jamaica Osorio (see episode playlist here)


Lit for the Mauna 2 - Episode 102 (Aug. 16, 2019): featuring Bryan Kamaoli Kuwada (see episode playlist here)


Lit for the Mauna 3 - Episode 103 (Sept. 1, 2019): featuring Emalani Case, Noelani Goodyear-Kaʻōpua, and ‘Ihilani Lasconia (see episode playlist here)

Note for free users on Mixcloud :

  • A show can only be listened to a maximum of 3 times within a 2 week rolling period
  • Tracklists aren’t shown in advance
  • Backwards seeking / rewinding is not available

The Blue Hawaiʻi Podcast - Episode 70 - August 05, 2019: "Meaning of the Mauna" 

Talk Story with Gaven Sugai - "We Are Mauna Kea" - Aug. 11, 2019: feat Pashyn Santos, Andria Tupola, Kahoʻokahi Kanuha 

Have resources to add?

This guide was created by Shavonn Matsuda and Chelsea Rabago in September 2019. We will continue to add resources periodically.

If you'd like to suggest any other resources to be added to this research guide, please email them to Shavonn (