Why citing is important
What to cite
Citing a source means that you show, within the body of your text, that you took words, ideas, figures, images, etc. from another place.
Citations are a short way to uniquely identify a published work (e.g. book, article, chapter, web site). They are found in bibliographies and reference lists and are also collected in article and book databases.
Citations consist of standard elements, and contain all the information necessary to identify and track down publications, including:
- author name(s)
- titles and/or containers (MLA)
- date of publication
- page numbers
- volume and issue numbers (for articles)
- DOI (APA and now encouraged by MLA)
Citations may look different, depending on what is being cited and which style was used to create them. Choose an appropriate style guide for your needs. Here is an example of an article citation using the two different citation styles supported by the UHMC Library. Notice the common elements as mentioned above:
Author - William D. Nordhaus
Article Title - Global Warming Economics
Source Title / Container 1 - Science
Volume and Issue - volume 294, number 5545
Publication Date - 2001
Page numbers - 1283 - 84
DOI - 10.1126/science.1065007
Database / Subscription Service / Container 2 - EBSCOhost
Modern Language Association (MLA) style (8th edition, 2016 changes):
American Psychological Association (APA) style:
APA in-text citations follow an Author-Date style. Purdue Owl Writing Lab Here is a good tutorial on APA in-text citation basics.
Remember: It is recommended to format your citations using Times New Roman in size 12 font.
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